Guide For Grad School

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Kinetic energy of sunlight will be transformed thus to the potential energy reserved by glucose. Of glucose together with the mineral batteries received from the soil - biogenes - form all fabrics of flora - proteins, carbohydrates, fats, lipids, DNA, RNA, that is organic substance of the planet.

The animals eating directly producers are called as primary konsument or konsument of the first order. They are eaten by secondary konsument. For example, the rabbit eating carrot is a konsument of the first order, and the fox hunting for a rabbit, - a konsument of the second order. Some types of live organisms correspond to several such levels. For example, when the person eats vegetables - he is a konsument of the first order, beef - a konsument of the second order, and eating predatory fish, acts as a konsument of the third order.

Atmospheric pressure, apparently, is not the limiting factor of direct action, however it has a direct bearing on weather and climate which make the direct limiting impact.

One more topographical factor - a slope exposition. In the northern hemisphere the slopes turned on the South receive more sunlight therefore intensity of light and temperature is higher here, than at the bottom of valleys and on slopes of a northern exposition. In the southern hemisphere the return situation takes place.

Areas of distribution and number of organisms of each look are limited not only conditions of the external lifeless environment, but also their relations with organisms of other types. The direct live environment of an organism makes his biotic environment, and factors of this Wednesday are called biotic. Representatives of each look are capable to exist in such environment where communication with other organisms is provided with it by normal living conditions.

Primary konsument feeding only on plants are called herbivorous or phytophages. Konsumenta the second and higher orders - carnivorous. Vida, eating both plants, and animals, belong to omnivorous, for example, the person.

At last, the considerable part of a detrit in an ecosystem, in particular fallen leaves, valezhny wood, in the initial look is not eaten by animals, and decays and decays in the course of food of mushrooms and bacteria by them.

Thus, despite variety of ecosystems, all of them possess structural similarity. In each of them it is possible to allocate photosynthesizing plants - producers, various levels of konsument, detritofag and redutsent. They also make biotic structure of ecosystems.

Types for which existence strictly certain ecological conditions are necessary, call stenobiontny, and the types adapting to an ecological situation with a wide range of change of parameters - evribiotny.

The ecosystem is based on unity of live and lifeless substance. The essence of this unity is shown in the following. From elements of inanimate nature, mainly molecules of CO2 and H2O, under the influence of energy of the sun the organic substances making everything live on the planet are synthesized. Process of creation of organic substance in the nature happens along with opposite process - consumption and decomposition of this substance on initial inorganic connections again. Set of these processes proceeds within ecosystems of various levels of hierarchy. That these processes were counterbalanced, the nature for billions of years fulfilled a certain structure of live substance of system.

Referred to biotic factors also impact of the person on live organisms earlier, however now allocate special category of the factors generated by the person. Anthropogenous factors are all forms of activity of human society which lead to change of the nature as habitats and other types and directly affect their life.

The organic substance of the soil is formed at decomposition of dead organisms, their parts and excrement. Not completely decayed fossils are called as a laying, and the final product of decomposition - amorphous substance in which it is already impossible to distinguish initial material, - is called as a humus. Thanks to the physical and chemical properties the humus improves structure of the soil and its aeration, and also increases ability to hold water and nutrients.

The current not only strongly influences concentration of gases and nutrients, but also directly works as the limiting factor. Many river plants and animals morphologically and physiologically are in a special way adapted for saving of the provision in a stream: they have quite certain limits of tolerance to a current factor.