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Determination of hardness is important when material for a fairing and entrance windows, and also for other details which have to be exposed to optical polishing gets out and keep the state in use. Follows from practice that the hardness of materials of the specified elements has to be not less than 1 of This quality has to remain at influence of chemical reactants, humidity, temperatures. Heatphysical properties are important for the materials working at considerable differences of temperatures. Here it is necessary to estimate heat conductivity, thermal expansion, specific heat.

Other example. Such gas as water vapors, characterizes irregular distribution of lines of absorption in the measured ranges. This circumstance brought statistical model (model Hoot), which assumes replacement of a real strip of absorption with a set of the lines located in a random way to life.

At a choice of optical material it is necessary to consider their mechanical, heatphysical, electric and chemical properties. In the first case is first of all hardness. Hardness usually is defined as P loading relation to the area of S and has dimension of pressure.

laboratory and natural researches of functions of a spectral molecular transmission, spectroscopic characteristics optically active gases, development of theoretical and empirical calculation procedures, statistically provided as well as in a task about properties of backgrounds:

Calculations of  are perfromed with the permission on a range of lengths of waves for intervals of =20 cm-1 rather powerful COMPUTERS which memory contains base of spectroscopic information. Process of calculation in foreign literature – this method is defined as "calculation the line behind the line" and issued in the form of standard software like "Hitran" which are constantly specified.

Heterogeneity of warming up of atmospheric air, connected with overcast, distinction like surface and vegetation lead to fluctuations of its density and according to index of refraction thanks to what atmospheric turbulence takes place.

Optically active gases of the atmosphere are subdivided into components which concentration in air is almost constant is CO2, CO, NH3, O2, CH4, N2O, O and H2O vapors which contents is defined by absolute humidity of air of time at present. Concentration of C0 of noted gases in the atmosphere of Earth has values for